Vomiting blood (hematemesis) refers to significant amounts of blood in your vomit. Small streaks or flecks of blood in material you spit up may come from the teeth, mouth or throat and isn't usually considered vomiting blood. Blood in vomit may be bright red, or it may appear black or dark brown like coffee grounds.
Swallowed blood, as from a nosebleed or forceful coughing, may cause bloody vomit, but truly vomiting blood usually represents something more serious and requires immediate medical attention. Bleeding in your upper gastrointestinal tract (mouth, esophagus, stomach and upper small intestine) from peptic (stomach or duodenal) ulcers or torn blood vessels is a common cause of vomiting blood.
Call 911 or your local emergency number if vomiting blood causes dizziness after standing, rapid, shallow breathing or other signs of shock.
Vomiting blood may be caused by:
In infants and young children, vomiting blood may also result from:
Call 911 if vomiting blood causes signs and symptoms of severe blood loss or shock, such as:
Ask someone to drive you to the emergency room if you notice blood in your vomit or begin vomiting blood. It's important to quickly identify the underlying cause of the bleeding and prevent more-severe blood loss and other complications, including death.